Characterization of circulating DNA in plasma of patients after allogeneic bone grafting
Ö. Solakoglu, B. Steinbach, W. Götz, G. Heydecke, K. Pantel, H. Schwarzenbach, Clin. Oral. Invest. 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02867-3
Within this study, the amount of foreign cfDNA before and after grafting with maxgraft® as well as possible foreign Y-DNA transmission was examined in comparison with autografts.
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) harboring mutations has been found in patients with diseases. Experimental studies have shown that cfDNA can be transmitted, leading to transformations in the host. In the present study, it evaluated whether bone allograft material contains cfDNA and whether this foreign cfDNA can be released into the patient’s blood circulation.
Materials and methods
Plasma samples were collected preoperatively and postoperatively on the same day, at 5 weeks, and 4 months from 25 women who received bone allograft material (test group) from male donors and from 10 women who were treated with autologous graft (control group, only pre- and postoperative samples were collected). DNA was quantified and characterized in bone material and plasma samples by quantitative PCR with primers specific for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Y chromosome and gel electrophoresis. DNA in bone material was digested by different concentrations of DNase I.
The authors detected between 1 and 1.8 μg cfDNA fragments at a length around 601 base pairs (bp) and smaller in each 100 mg allograft. Treatment of the allograft with DNase I completely degraded the longer but not the shorter DNA 90-bp fragments. YDNA was not detected in the patients’ bloodstream at any time during the treatment and follow-up, but elevated levels of circulating cfDNA could be measured immediately postoperatively.
The authors’ results suggest that a transmission of DNA from allografts used for alveolar ridge reconstruction in humans is unlikely. The observed increase in circulating cfDNA in allograft and autograft patients immediately postoperatively may be elicited by the surgical procedure.
The results support the safety of allograft materials. The results suggest that human allograft materials seem not to release DNA into the blood since it was not measured Y-DNA with the applied technique.